“Croaker” is a broad colloquial name used in many English speaking areas to name various fish which fall under the Sciaenidae family (under the Perciformes order). Most Croakers are gregarious, community animals and make noise by way of oscillating their swim bladder.
Sciaenids chorus in groups often temporally aligned with diel (day-night) cycles. Some also chorus spatially, sequentially signaling in waves like “stadium waves” across areas as wide as 25km.
Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Atlantic Croaker
FishBase.org: Atlantic Croaker Species Summary
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, FMRI: Atlantic Croaker
Maryland Department of Natural Resources: Atlantic Croaker
MIT Seagrant: Martin Connaughton’s Research Overview on Sound Production in the Family Sciaenidae
Connaughton, M.A., Lunn, M.L., Fine, M.L. and Taylor, M.H. 2002. Characterization of sounds and their use in two sciaenid species: weakfish and Atlantic croaker.
Workshop Proceedings from the International Workshop on the Application of Passive Acoustics in Fisheries, April 8-10, 2002.Fish, M.P. and Mowbray, H.M. 1970. Sounds of Western North Atlantic Fishes. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press. pg. 106.
Hoese, H.D. and Moore, R.H. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Texas, Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas 77843