Belugas

Beluga Whale

Beluga Whale: Photo by {a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/jofre/209874955/sizes/l/in/photostream/" target="_blank"}Jofre Ferrer{/a} on Flickr.

Called “canaries of the sea” these Arctic odontocetes have a very cheery and colorful sounding social vocalization repertoire. Second to the bottlenose dolphin, Belugas are probably the most anthropomorphized of the cetaceans (folks personally identify with them). This is likely due to the appearance of a “smile” on their mouth, and the fact that they have very flexible necks, so they can look around by shifting their heads like humans. They also have a very plastic melon that can change shape to “mind-blowing” degrees. Given that the melon is associated with bio-sonar and hearing, this indicates a very complex relationship with sound.
Latin Name:
Delphinapterus leucas
AKA:
sea canary, white whale
Length:
5 m (16 ft)
Weight:
Males weigh 1,100 - 1,600 kg (2,400 and 3,500 lb), occasionally up to 1,900 kg (4,200 lb) while females weigh 700 - 1,200 kg (1,500 and 2,600 lb)
Lifetime:
--
Physical Traits:
forehead has a melon, dorsal ridge, adults are white colored, neck vertebrae aren't fused so it can turn it's head
Behavior:
highly social, large groups of males, smaller groups of females and young, can swim backwards
Habitat:
Beluga whales are entirely arctic and subarctic waters, in summer - bays, estuaries and inlets, in winter - near edge of icepack.
Locations:
Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea, the Gulf of Alaska, the Beaufort Sea, Baffin Bay, Hudson Bay, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Food:
Salmon, other fish
Predators:
Orcas, Subsistence hunters
Links:
Wikipedia: Beluga Whale Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Beluga Whale FishBase.org: Belugas Arkive.org: Beluga Whale Arctic Studies Center: Beluga Whales Discovery News: Beluga Whales Have Distinct Voices NOAA Fisheries: Beluga Whales in Alaska SeaWorld Education Department: Beluga Whales University of Vermont: Beluga Range and Habitat Whales Online: St. Lawrence River Estuary
Literature:
Au, W.W.L, Carder, D.A., Penner, R.H. and Scronce, B.L. 1985. Demonstration of adaptation in beluga whale echolocation signals. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 77(2): 726-730.Hoyt, E. The Whales of Canada. Camden House, 1984: 79-83.Karlsen, J.D., Bisther, A., Lydersen, C., Haug, T. and Kovacs, K.M. 2002. Summer vocalisations of adult male white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Svalbard, Norway. Polar Biology 25(11): 808-817. Katona, S.K., Rough V. and Richardson, D.T.. A Field Guide to the Whales, Porpoises and Seals of the Gulf of Maine and Eastern Canada. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1993. Sjare, B.L. and T.G. Smith. 1986. The vocal repertoire of white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, summering in Cunningham Inlet, Northwest Territories. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64(2): 407-415. Lesage, V., Barrette, C., Kingsley, M.C.S. and Sjare, B. 1999. The effect of vessel noise on the vocal behavior of belugas in the St. Lawrence River Estuary, Canada. Marine Mammal Science 15(1): 65-84. Scheifele, P. M., Andrew, S., Cooper, R. A., Darre, M., Musiek, F. E. and Max, L. 2005. Indication of a Lombard vocal response in the St. Lawrence River beluga. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 117(3): 1486-1492.
Belugas

Right Whale

Right Whale

Right Whale: Photo by {a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/manning999/3088806330/sizes/l/in/photostream/" target="_blank"}manning999{/a} on Flickr.

Right whales are surface feeders that inhabit shallow areas close to shore, easily subjecting them to ship collisions, or “ship strikes.” Their niche also made them easy prey for commercial whalers, so currently there are exceedingly few right whales. Cousins to the Bowhead whales, many of their calls are in the range of human hearing. Their moans and whelps suggest elephants, and the North Atlantic males produce a “gunshot” sound, so sound recordings could be mistaken for an elephant hunt. That these animals are rare and threatened has brought a lot of focus to their preservation. This has facilitated the development of a fabulous monitoring program in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary designed, installed, and managed by Chris Clark’s lab (Cornell). Much is being learned about the whales, but also about shipping noise and masking models.
Latin Name:
Eubalaena
AKA:
For E. australis: antarctica (Lesson, 1828), antipodarum (Gray, 1843), temminckii (Gray, 1864) For E. glacialis: biscayensis (Eschricht, 1860), nordcaper (Lacepede, 1804) For E. japonica: sieboldii (Gray, 1864) Greenland whale, the black whale, the great whale, the true whale
Length:
11–18 m (36–59 ft)
Weight:
60–80 short tons (54–73 t)
Lifetime:
Unknown, but there is evidence that their Bowhead cousins may live 200+ years.
Physical Traits:
mostly black, no dorsal fin, callosities on the head region, thick body, broad tail fluke, distinctive v-shaped blow
Behavior:
Right whales forage and reside at the surface in shallow waters near the coasts.
Habitat:
moderate temperatures found between 20 and 60 degrees in latitude, close to peninsulas, bays, continental shelves
Locations:
three distinct areas of the globe: the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, the North Pacific in a band from Japan to Alaska, all areas of the Southern Ocean.
Food:
zooplankton, crustaceans, krill, pteropods
Predators:
orcas
Links:
Literature:
Clark, C.W. 1982. The acoustic repetoire of the southern right whale, a quantitative analysis. Animal Behavior 30: 1060-1071.Mellinger, D.K., Stafford, K.M., Moore, S.E., Munger, L. and Fox, C.G. 2004. Detection of North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica) calls in the Gulf of Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 20(4): 872-879. Parks, S.E. 2003. Response of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) to playback of calls recorded from surface active groups in both the North and South Atlantic. Marine Mammal Science 19(3): 563-580. Matthews, J. N., Brown, S., Gillespie, D., Johnson, M., McLanaghan, R., Moscrop, A., Nowacek, D., Leaper, R., Lewis, T. and Tyack, P. 2001. Vocalisation rates of the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3(3): 271-282. McDonald, M.A. and Moore, S.E. 2002. Calls recorded from North Pacific right whales (Eubalaena japonica) in the eastern Bering Sea. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4(3): 261-266. Richardson, W.J., Green, C.R. Jr., Malme, C.I. and Thomson, D.H. 1995. Marine Mammals and Noise. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Vanderlaan, A.S.M., Hay, A.E. and Taggart, C.T. 2003. Characterization of North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) sounds in the Bay of Fundy. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 28(2): 164-173.
Right Whale

Snapping Shrimp

Snapping Shrimp

Snapping Shrimp

Source: Paul Perkins, NUWC Engineering

Probably the most ubiquitous sound in shallow temperate waters and thus the curse of all marine life sound recordists is the sound of the snapping or “pistol” shrimp (Cragnon Synalpheus, C. Alpheus). They produce an extremely loud pop (source level 220dB re 1 uPa or 80 kPa at 4 cm). This pop stuns their prey which they can then dismember and eat without further ado. They live in burrows and can be easily heard as a popcorn or crackling sound anywhere in the coastal ocean where you might submerge your head. Bioacoustician John Potter used this sound as an ‘acoustical illumination’ to resolve shapes underwater. Just as our eyes see light reflecting off of objects allowing us to see them, Dr. Potter speculated that the sound of the shrimp would reflect off of submerged objects allowing sea animals to “see” them in a form of “passive sonar.” If he is correct, it would explain how nocturnal animals might perceive their surroundings when there is little or no light available. If he is correct it would also indicate that there is something about fish hearing that we don’t have quite right yet, as most fish audiograms indicate that they can’t hear in frequency bands that would allow for this type of ‘acoustical illumination’ perception.
Latin Name:
Alpheidae
AKA:
pistol shrimp, alpheid shrimp
Length:
3 to 5 cm
Weight:
--
Lifetime:
--
Physical Traits:
distinctive for its disproportionately large claw, claw can be on either arm, no pincers, instead there is a pistol-like feature with a "hammer" that snaps and creates a cavitation bubble that is loud enough to stun their prey
Behavior:
can share burrows with goby fish, live in colonies, snaps with claw to stun its prey, the sound can break small glass jars and can interfere with sonar and underwater communication
Habitat:
coral reefs, submerged seagrass flats and oyster reefs
Locations:
worldwide in tropical and subtropical coastal waters
Food:
Small arthropods, zooplankton
Predators:
Fish
Links:
Wikipedia: Snapping Shrimp Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Snapping Shrimp
Literature:
Temporal, geographic, and density variations in the acoustic activity of snapping shrimp Marc O. Lammers, Sara Stieb, Whitlow W.L. Au, T. Aran Mooney, Russell E. Brainard, and Kevin Wong J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 3013 (2006)Snapping shrimp noise in the Korean coast of the Yellow Sea Byoung-Nam Kim, Suk Wang Yoon, Bok Kyoung Choi, Bong-Chae Kim, and Cheolsoo Kim InterNoise Proc. 206, 3738 (2003)On the sound of snapping shrimp: The collapse of a cavitation bubble Michel Versluis, Anna von der Heydt, Detlef Lohse, and Barbara Schmitz J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2541Imaging in the ocean with ambient noise: the ORB experiments Chad L. Epifanio, John R. Potter, Grant B. Deane, Mark L. Readhead, and Michael J. Buckingham J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 3211 (1999)
Snapping Shrimp

Gray Whale

Gray Whale

Gray Whale: Photo by {a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpmckenna/4467477140/sizes/l/in/photostream/" target="_blank"}jpmckenna{/a} on Flickr.

Gray whales are coastal animals, always swimming above the continental shelf. The gray whales of the Atlantic were slaughtered by Portuguese whalers who because of their proximity to the shores hunted them as early as 500 AD. They migrate along the coasts, breeding in lagoons and estuaries in the southern extents of their migrations. Old whalers called them “mud whales” because they forage for invertebrates buried in the mud. (They filter out the food from the mud with their short, bristly baleen that is reminiscent of a deck brush.) They were also called “Devil Fish” because unlike all other whales (except the Sperm whale) they aggressively attacked the whalers, maiming or killing one out of four who worked the fishery. The remaining gray whales are in the Pacific. The Western Pacific Grays are seriously endangered (130 animals left with only 20 breeding females) and recently set upon by oil and gas operations in Sakhalin, Russia where they feed in the summer. The Eastern Pacific grays are currently in a pretty healthy population state (20,000+). Having not been hunted since 1936 when their populations sank below commercial viability. This population now only has to contend with habitat displacement and ship strikes. In the summer of 2011 a grey whale was sited in the Mediterranean and later off of Spain. The speculation was that it was an intrepid scout (or confused individual) from the Western Pacific population seeking alternative habitat. Their vocal repertoire consists of grunts, knocks, croaks, bangs, and grunts. Not sounds that humans find compelling, but probably pretty important to the Grays.
Latin Name:
Eschrichtius robustus
AKA:
Devil fish, mud whale
Length:
Males 12 – 15m (45’ – 50’) Females up to 16 m (52 ft)
Weight:
36 tonnes (35 long tons; 40 short tons)
Lifetime:
--
Physical Traits:
dark slate-gray in color and covered by characteristic gray-white patterns, scars left by parasites, short baleen, 6 to 12 dorsal crenulations ("knuckles"), no dorsal fin, usually body has patches of barnacles and whale mites – the latter of which are passed to the newborns at birth. Females are slightly larger than males
Behavior:
Gray whales eat by turning on its side pulling crustaceans and mollusks out of the mud and sand on the shallow sea bottom. The usually feed on the right side which can result in right-eye blindness. They give birth in shallow lagoon waters, migrate north-south annually, with a gestation period of 12-13 months
Habitat:
Coastal waters within the continental shelf. Since industrialized whaling these only inhabit the Pacific
Locations:
The Eastern Pacific (North American) population is reasonably recovered. They winter along the coast of California and breed and give birth in the Lagoons of Baja Calofornia, migrating to the Bering Sea in the spring The Western North Pacific (Asian) population is critically endangered, feeding in the Sakhalin Islands area and found in the Sea of Okhotsk.
Food:
Crustaceans and mollusks found buried in mud and sand.
Predators:
Orcas
Links:
Wikipedia: Gray Whale Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Gray Whale Arkive.org: Gray Whale American Cetacean Society Fact Sheet: Gray Whale Cetacea: Gray Whale National Marine Mammal Laboratory: Gray Whales The Marine Mammal Center: Gray Whale SeaWorld: J.J. the Gray Whale SeaWorld: Gray Whales K-3 Activities (pdf file)
Literature:
Crane, N.L. and Lashkari, K. 1996. Sound production of gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus, along their migration route: A new approach to signal analysis. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 100(3): 1878-1886.Cummings, W.C., Thompson, P.O. and Cook, R. 1968.Underwater sounds of migrating gray whales, Eschrichtius glaucus (Cope). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 44(5): 1278-1281. Richardson, W.J., Green, C.R. Jr., Malme, C.I. and Thomson, D.H. 1995. Marine Mammals and Noise. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Wisdom, S., Bowles, A.E. and Anderson, K.E. 2001. Development of behavior and sound repertoire of a rehabilitating gray whale calf. Aquatic Mammals 27(3): 239-255.
Gray Whale

Humpback Whale

Humpback

Humpback

Source: ©Thomas R. Kieckhefer www.savethewhales.org

Humpbacks became the iconic whale that turned the tide of public opinion against commercial whaling after Roger Payne released a recoding of their evocative songs in 1972. “The Songs of the Humpback Whale” became the first ‘Gold Album’ (a million sales) produced by an animal. The songs are long, complex, and include varied sections – stanzas and codas, lasting 10 – 20 minutes and often repeated for hours on end and are sung by the males. All males in a given regional group will sing the same song throughout the breeding season. The songs will change each year, so a group and a year can be identified by the song. Recently there has been evidence that song elements migrate between some groups over time.
Latin Name:
Megaptera novaeangliae
AKA:
--
Length:
12–16 metres (39–52 ft)
Weight:
36,000 kilograms (79,000 lb)
Lifetime:
--
Physical Traits:
stocky, humpback, black dorsal coloring, head and jar are covered with tubercles (hair follicles), black and white tail fin, pectoral fin has unique patterns
Behavior:
vocal, acrobatic - breaching and slapping the water, migratory, social, Humpbacks feed only in summer, in polar waters, and migrate to tropical or sub-tropical waters to breed and give birth in the winter, alone or in small transient groups
Habitat:
ocean, from polar to tropical waters
Locations:
North Pacific, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean humpbacks have distinct populations which complete a migratory round-trip each year. The Indian Ocean population does not migrate, prevented by that ocean's northern coastline.
Food:
krill, small fish
Predators:
Orcas, some sharks during birthing, Japanese whalers on occasion
Links:
Wikipedia: Humpback Whale Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Humpback Whale Arkive.org: Humpback Whale Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Bioacoustics Research Program: Humpback Whale Vocalizations Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whales National Marine Sanctuary JASON Project Online Expedition: Humpback Whales PBS Nature: Humpback Whales PBS Secrets of the Ocean Realm: Humpback Whale
Literature:
Cerchio, S. and Dahlheim, M. 2001. Variation in feeding vocalizations of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) from southeast Alaska. Bioacoustics 11: 277-295.Charif, R.A., Clapham, P.J. and Clark, C.W., 2001.Acoustic detections of singing humpback whales in deep waters off the British Isles. Marine Mammal Science, 17(4): 751-768. Clark, C.W. and Clapham, P.J. 2004. Acoustic monitoring on a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding ground shows continual singing into late spring. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 271: 1051-1057. Darling, J.D. and Bérubé, M. 2001. Interactions of singing humpback whales with other males. Marine Mammal Science 17(3): 570-584. Cerchio, S., Jacobsen, J.K. and Norris, T.N. 2001. Temporal and geographical variation in songs of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae: Synchronous change in Hawaiian and Mexican breeding assemblages. Animal Behavior 62(2): 313-329. Richardson, W.J., Green, C.R. Jr., Malme, C.I. and Thomson, D.H. 1995. Marine Mammals and Noise. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Humpback Whale

Sperm Whale

Sperm Whale

Phot: Brian J. Skerry, Natuional Geographic

The sperm whale was hunted voraciously up until 1988 for the waxy spermaceti oil in its cranium. It was found to be an exceedingly fine lubricant for machinery because it has interesting temperature-dependant density and viscosity properties. It is generally believed that the whale regulates these properties to mediate its buoyancy allowing it to easily dive when the oil is denser than water and helping them surface when it is less dense. The energy economy of this exchange facilitates dives as deep a 3km (almost 10,000 feet) making the sperm whale the deepest diving vertebrate known. (Pressures at 3km are over 4400psi or 300 atmospheres.) The spermaceti organ is also has very complex acoustical features, allowing the focused transmission and reception of their characteristic bio-sonar. The sperm whale “clicks” when heard in aggregation sound like a busy team of carpenters hammering away on a job – giving them the colloquial name of “carpenter fish.” The sperm whale, like the gray whale (and unlike any of the other whales) will attack their aggressors, which made the fishery exceedingly dangerous for whalers (although even more dangerous for the whales).
Latin Name:
Physeter macrocephalus
AKA:
carpenter fish, common cachalot; "cachalot" is derived from an archaic French word for "tooth"
Length:
up to 20.5 metres (67 ft)
Weight:
57,000 kilograms (56 long tons; 63 short tons)
Lifetime:
over 70 years
Physical Traits:
The largest toothed whale, head can be 1/3 of body length, named for a white substance found in it's head, flukes are triangular and very thick, blowhole is close to front of head and slightly left, brain is largest of any known mammal and the most sexually dimorphic cetaceans, with males considerably larger than females. Adult females may grow to lengths of 36 feet (11 m) and weigh 15 tons (13607 kg). Adult males, however, reach about 52 feet (16 m) and may weigh as much as 45 tons (40823 kg).
Behavior:
dives as deep as 3 kilometres (9,800 ft), which makes it the deepest diving mammal, live in groups called pods, females cooperate to protect and nurse their young, clicking vocalization is the loudest sound produced by any animal
Habitat:
Often associated with feeding along the slope of the continental shelf. Rarely found in waters less than 300 meters ( ~1000’) deep.
Locations:
Global between 70̊ N and 70̊ S Latitude. Groups will remain resident to specific feeding areas.
Food:
squid and fish
Predators:
Orcas. Pilot whales have been seen harassing sperm whales. Neonates are subject to shark attacks.
Links:
Wikipedia: Sperm WhaleDiscovery of Sound in the Sea: Sperm Whale Arkive.org: Dwarf Sperm Whale Arkive.org: Pygmy Sperm Whale Arkive.org: Sperm Whale
Literature:
Tracking sperm whales with a towed acoustic vector sensor Aaron Thode, Jeff Skinner, Pam Scott, Jeremy Roswell, Janice Straley, and Kendall Folkert J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 2681 (2010)Depth, orientation, and acoustics of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) under natural and depredation foraging conditions in the Gulf of Alaska Delphine Mathias, Aaron Thode, Jan Straley, Kendall Folkert, John Calambokidis, Greg Schorr, William C. Burgess, and Chris Lunsford J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 3775 (2008)Insights into the acoustic behavior of sperm whales Gianni Pavan J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 1262
Sperm Whale

Bowhead Whale

Bowhead Whale

Bowhead Whale: Photo by fruchtzwerg's world on Flickr.

A descriptive name given on account of the many ways the head suggest “bows;” the profile of the head resembles the “bow of a boat,” the upper jaw is arched like an archer’s bow, and the baleen arches like a taught bow. The baleen in the bowhead is the longest of the baleen whales with plates reaching 4 meters (15 feet). The bowhead has over 300 plates of baleen on each side of their head, so while they were hunted for oil, the baleen was also sought for many products until plastic became the rage – another case where ironically the petroleum industry had a hand in saving the whales. This cousin of the Right Whale resides exclusively in the Arctic. They follow the advance and retreat of the lead ice and can break through 12” of ice, and are often accompanied by belugas. The lifespan of most whales have been framed in the context of human longevity, despite the lack of any substantiating evidence. This was until a Bowhead was recently taken by subsistence hunters who found an ivory spear point lodged in its blubber of a type that had not been used for 200 years.
Latin Name:
Balaena mysticetus
AKA:
--
Length:
up to 20 m (66 ft)
Weight:
75 tonnes (74 long tons; 83 short tons) to 100 tonnes (98 long tons; 110 short tons)
Lifetime:
possibly over 200 years
Physical Traits:
enormous head, white chin, no dorsal fin, stocky, dark colored, no dorsal fin, longest baleen of any whale - 3 m (9.8 ft)
Behavior:
uses it's thick, bony skull to break through ice, travels alone or in small groups, highly vocal
Habitat:
Along the lead edges of the arctic ice
Locations:
Arctic Ocean – Chukchi, Beaufort, Bering, Okhotsk, and North Seas
Food:
small crustaceans
Predators:
Orcas, Arctic “subsistence hunters”
Links:
Wikipedia: Bowhead Whale Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Bowhead Whale Arkive.org: Bowhead Whale Alaska Department of Fish and Game: Bowhead Whale Cetacea: Bowhead Whale Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Bioacoustics Research Program: Bowhead Whale Vocalizations National Marine Mammal Laboratory: Bowhead Whales
Literature:
Clark, C.W. and Johnson, J.H. 1984. The sounds of the bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus, during the spring migrations of 1979 and 1980. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62: 1436-1441.Cummings, W.C. and Holliday, D.V. 1987. Sounds and source levels from bowhead whales off Pt. Barrow, Alaska. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 82(3): 814-821.Ko, D., Zeh, J.E., Clark, C.W., Ellison, W.T., Krogman, B.D. and Sonntag, R. 1986. Utilization of acoustic location data in determining a minimum number of spring-migrating bowhead whales unaccounted for by the ice-based visual census. Report of the International Whaling Commission 36: 325-338. Ljungblad, D.K., Thompson, P.O. and Moore, S.E. 1982. Underwater sounds recorded from migrating bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, in 1979. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 71(2): 477-482. Richardson, W.J., Green, C.R. Jr., Malme, C.I. and Thomson, D.H. 1995. Marine Mammals and Noise. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Bowhead Whale

Dolphins

Dolphins

Dolphins: Photo by {a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/jenorton/5643121091/sizes/l/in/photostream/" target="_blank"}lowjumpingfrog{/a} on Flickr.

‘Dolphins’ comprise the largest family of the cetaceans, with over forty species within some 17 genera varying in size from 1.2 m (4 ft) and 40 kg (90 lb) for the Maui's dolphin – Cephalorhynchus hectori maui (a big name for a small animal), up to 9.5 m (30 ft) and 10 tonnes – the orca or orca orcinus (a small name for a big animal). All dolphins are pack animals that hunt and play cooperatively. They also are representative of the major division of the cetaceans between the Mysticetes (‘mustache’ or baleen whales) and Odontocetes (toothed whales). The difference between these divisions is akin to the terrestrial division between cows and wolves; the large Mysticetes graze on massive gullet-full quantities of small organisms, the Odontocetes pack-hunt prey which they pick off individually. The Dolphin’s vocalization repertoire reflects their high-speed social and tactical adaptations. They use mid frequency vocalizations for social interaction (within our human auditory band), and high frequency bio-sonar to perceive their surroundings and “see” their prey. The other most familiar members of the sub-order “odontoceti” are the porpoises (Phocenidae) with a similar behavioral repertoire to the dolphins. One simple distinguishing difference is that the dolphins have round teeth, and the porpoises have flat teeth – a distinction that hopefully remains only academic to the reader. The dentition of other odontocetes (from narwhals to beaked whales) is for too varied, and a bit too tangential to outline here.
Latin Name:
families Delphinidae and Platanistoidea and Odontoceti
AKA:
Members of these families are known by many common and colloquial names.
Length:
Among the smallest of this family the Hectors, Chilean can be 4’-5’ (1.2 to 1.5 m) and and the largest, the Orcas, can be 27’ – 33’ (8 – 10m).
Weight:
Among the smallest Hector’s and Black dolphin 100 lbs (45kg) Orcas 8,000-12,000 lbs. (3600-54000kg).
Lifetime:
comparable to human lifespans, depending on species
Physical Traits:
The distinguishing characteristic of all delphinidae is that they have round teeth.
Behavior:
social, vocal, bait ball hunting, play with seaweed, play-fight with other dolphins, harass other local creatures like seabirds and turtles, ride waves and frequently surf coastal swells and the bow waves of boats, bubble rings, sleep with half their brain at a time
Habitat:
Throughout the ocean but associated with land masses and shallower waters. There are a few freshwater species in the South America and India. The Chinese freshwater species have recently become extinct.
Locations:
Global distribution depending on species
Food:
fish
Predators:
Larger Odontocetes (Orcas in most cases), sharks
Links:
Wikipedia: Dolphin Wikipedia: Common Dolphin Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Common Dolphin Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Spinner Dolphin Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Bottlenose Dolphin
Literature:
--
Dolphins

Atlantic Croaker

Atlantic Croaker

Atlantic Croaker: Photo by {a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/noaaphotolib/5187498831/sizes/l/in/photostream/" target="_blank"}NOAA Photo Library{/a}on Flickr.

Source: Sounds of the Western North Atlantic Fishes by Fish & Mowbray, 1970, University of Rhode Island, 2001

“Croaker” is a broad colloquial name used in many English speaking areas to name various fish which fall under the Sciaenidae family (under the Perciformes order). Most Croakers are gregarious, community animals and make noise by way of oscillating their swim bladder. Sciaenids chorus in groups often temporally aligned with diel (day-night) cycles. Some also chorus spatially, sequentially signaling in waves like “stadium waves” across areas as wide as 25km.
Latin Name:
Family - Sciaenidae, Micropogonias undulatus
AKA:
--
Length:
12 inches (30 cm)
Weight:
1/2 to 2 pounds (226 g to 0.9 kg)
Lifetime:
8 years
Physical Traits:
long dorsal fin that almost reaches the tail
Behavior:
migrate offshore to spawn, spend winter offshore on continental shelf, bottom dwellers, sounds are used for courting by the male fish but both male and female have capability, females and young use sound as a fright response
Habitat:
coastal waters, estuaries over mud or sand bottoms, in areas with low to moderate salinity, warm-temperate and tropical waters, best represented in major rivers
Locations:
Sciaenidae are found worldwide, in both fresh and saltwater, Atlantic Croaker are found along the coast from Main to Florida
Food:
worms, mkollusks, crustaceans and small fish
Predators:
striped bass, flounder, weakfish, and spotted seatrout
Links:
Wikipedia: Croaker Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Atlantic Croaker FishBase.org: Atlantic Croaker Species Summary Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, FMRI: Atlantic Croaker Maryland Department of Natural Resources: Atlantic Croaker MIT Seagrant: Martin Connaughton's Research Overview on Sound Production in the Family Sciaenidae Connaughton, M.A., Lunn, M.L., Fine, M.L. and Taylor, M.H. 2002. Characterization of sounds and their use in two sciaenid species: weakfish and Atlantic croaker.
Literature:
Workshop Proceedings from the International Workshop on the Application of Passive Acoustics in Fisheries, April 8-10, 2002.Fish, M.P. and Mowbray, H.M. 1970. Sounds of Western North Atlantic Fishes. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press. pg. 106. Hoese, H.D. and Moore, R.H. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Texas, Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas 77843
Atlantic Croaker

Barred Grunt

Barred Grunt: Photo by jtu on Flickr.

Barred Grunt: Photo by {a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/jtu/3613946063/sizes/l/in/photostream/" target="_blank"}jtu{/a} on Flickr.

Source: Sounds of the Western North Atlantic Fishes by Fish & Mowbray, 1970, University of Rhode Island, 2001

Like most of the fish featured in this website, the Grunt is classified under the order Perciformes – the “ray finned” fishes. Perciformes are mostly gregarious fishes (found in groups) so it is not surprising that they would have some form of sound communication. The Grunt is from the Haemulidae family, which are characterized by (among other things) their making noise with “pharyngeal teeth” which are located in the gullet and may serve as a pre-digestive feature as well as a noise making feature. Grunt may be a bit too prosaic a description of their sound (from which comes their name). It was probably characterized by the sound of the fish on the dock and not their sound in the water. More complexity is revealed in these underwater recordings.
Latin Name:
Haemulidae conodon nobilis
AKA:
Cro-cro grunt / Yellow Cro-cro
Length:
max 33.6cm, avg 25 cm (max 12” avg 10”)
Weight:
max 588 g (1.3 lbs.)
Lifetime:
10 years
Physical Traits:
Oblong, compressed, perch-like fishes. Grunts possess prominent pharyngeal teeth. Stridulation of the pharyngeal teeth produces sounds which are then amplified by the swim bladder. These sounds may be associated with feeding but can also function as a fright response when the fish is captured, handled or otherwise distressed. Both males and females produce sounds.
Behavior:
Feeds at night and hangs out over coral bottoms during the day. Bottom feeders. Named for the grunting sound that it makes by grinding the teeth in its throat.
Habitat:
Found along sandy shores and over shallow muddy bottoms in the Western Atlantic
Locations:
along Texas and eastern florida, jamaica to brazil, western gulf of mexico, lesser antilles, centeral and south america, argentina
Food:
crustaceans and small fishes
Predators:
Sharks, larger fish
Links:
Wikipedia: Grunt Fish Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Barred Grunt FishBase.org: Barred Grunt Species Summary
Literature:
Fish, M.P. and Mowbray, H.M. 1970. Sounds of Western North Atlantic Fishes. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press. p. 90.Hoese, H.D. and Moore, R.H. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Texas, Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas 77843 Robins, C.R. and Ray, G.C. 1986. Atlantic Coast Fishes. Houghton Mifflin Company, 215 Park Avenue South, New York, New York 10003 p.177.
Barred Grunt

Midshipman

Midshipman

Midshipman: Photo by {a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/noaaphotolib/5187504007/sizes/l/in/photostream/" target="_blank"}NOAA Photo Library{/a} on Flickr.

The midshipman (Porichthys notatus) is a small fish with a large sound. Typically around 6” they inhabit mud flats and inner-tidal zones. Like freshwater carp they can breathe both in and out of water. They are “oviparous” meaning that they deposit eggs, in nests which the males tend. These animals reached stardom in the US about 30 years ago when the extremely loud humming sound was disrupting the lives of houseboat residents in upscale Sausalito harbor, California. The alien sound was attributed to the military, to some sinister industrial project, and even to extra-terrestrials. The sample here is produced by two males presumably ‘courting’ a female by way of swim-bladder oscillation. The phasing of their chorus (small time domain shifts over a frequency-synchronized signal) could carry some imbedded information about breeding fitness, or it could be a way of ambiguating the actual source of the signal to predators, or…? CD Supplement to: “Sounds of the Western North Atlantic Fishes” by Fish & Mowbray, 1970. CD ©University of Rhode Island, 2001.
Latin Name:
Porichthys notatus
AKA:
Plainfin midshipman, Humming Toadfish, California Canary fish
Length:
Typical length 15 cm (6”) Max length: 38.0 cm(15”)
Weight:
--
Lifetime:
--
Physical Traits:
Olive brown to bronze or dark iridescent purple on dorsal surface, paler on sides with a golden yellow on ventral surface; white space under eye with a black crescent below; white on posterior edge of maxillary; young with a weak dark dorsal saddle.They are distinguished by having photophores (which they use to attract prey and after which they are named, reminding some of a naval uniform's buttons) and four lateral lines.
Behavior:
nest is guarded by males, prey of seals and sea lions, can breath air out of water
Habitat:
Shallow waters, muddy bays, inter-tidal areas where they can be found under stones when the tide is out.
Locations:
Eastern Pacific: Sitka, Alaska to Magdalena Bay, southern Baja California, Mexico. Records from areas south of Baja California and in the Gulf of California are in error. Two populations exist, one from Oregon northward and the other from San Francisco southward.
Food:
crustaceans and fish
Predators:
Seals and sea lions
Links:
Wikipedia: Midshipman Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Midshipman FishBase.org: Midshipman
Literature:
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann 1983 A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p.
Midshipman

Oyster Toadfish

oyster_toad_fish1

Oyster Toadfish

Source: Sounds of the Western North Atlantic Fishes by Fish & Mowbray, 1970, University of Rhode Island, 2001

The Opsanus Tau is related to the Midshipman under the family Batrachoididae (toad-like fish) and inhabit the same type of inner tidal areas. They also breathe air out of water and given the habitat and the structure of the pectoral fins they likely have some kinship to the various fishes that made their way out of water and on to land some 200 million years ago. Their characteristic “boat whistle” is produced by oscillating muscles around the swim bladder, which they use as a resonator. These muscles are one of the fastest vertebrate muscles.
Latin Name:
Opsanus tau
AKA:
Ugly toad, Oyster cracker, Bar dog, Dowdy
Length:
avg. 30 cm (12”) max 38 cm (15”)
Weight:
Max 580g (1.3 lbs)
Lifetime:
Both males and females mature in their second year and live to approximately 8 and 5 years, respectively.
Physical Traits:
yellowish with a pattern of brown bars, camouflage patterns
Behavior:
males build nests of debris and then signals to females with a "boat-whistle" call, after female lays the eggs the male then protects the nest and cares for the eggs, hunts by using it's camouflage and surprise attacks
Habitat:
bottom dweller, shallow water among rocky substrate and any debris for shelter, can survive very bad conditions
Locations:
from Maine to the Caribbean Sea
Food:
crustaceans, mollusks, amphipods, squid, and other smaller fish
Predators:
Sharks, rays
Links:
Wikipedia: Oyster Toadfish Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Oyster Toadfish FishBase.org: Oyster Toadfish Species Summary Chesapeake Bay Program: Oyster Toadfish Discovery Channel Canada: The One That Didn't Get Away
 - The fish video is the 4th video on the page. Rhode Island Restoration Portal: Oyster Toadfish
Literature:
Amorim, M.C.P., McCracken, M.L. and Fine, M.L. 2002. Metabolic costs of sound production in the oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:830-838.Fish, M.P. and Mowbray, H.M. 1970. Sounds of Western North Atlantic Fishes. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press. pg. 192-193.
Oyster Toadfish

Bar Jack

barjack3

Bar Jack

Source: Sounds of the Western North Atlantic Fishes by Fish & Mowbray, 1970, University of Rhode Island, 2001

The Bar Jack is an elegant fish in the Jack (Carangidae) family resident to the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean, extending along the coast of Brazil associated with coral reefs. Most often schooling and feeding pelagically, but occasionally foraging solo in shallow sand. Their sound is produced by way of both grinding teeth and swim bladder oscillation. Most accounts of the Bar Jack include a hetrospecific foraging relationship with the Puddingwife Wrasse – that the wrasse and the jack formed foraging teams that the Jack would even defend this team relationship against encroachment by conspecifics (other Bar Jacks).
Latin Name:
Carangoides ruber
AKA:
Bar Jack, Red Jack, Carbonero, Blue-striped Cavalla, Passing Jack
Length:
40 - 69 cm (15” – 23”)
Weight:
up to 6.8 kg (15 lbs)
Lifetime:
Both males and females mature by 3-4 years.
Physical Traits:
dark horizontal bar that runs along it's back and the lower tail fin electric blue stripe below the black stripe on the body body color gets darker when bottom-feeding white belly
Behavior:
found both alone and in large groups mobile between various different habitats
Habitat:
clear shallow waters, coral reefs, sandbars, lagoons, offshore, up to 100 meters deep
Locations:
along coast from New Jersey to Brazil, Gulf of Mexico, West Indies
Food:
fish, crustaceans, cephalopods
Predators:
Other large carangids, as well as dolphins, mackerels, marlins, various seabirds, humans.
Links:
Wikipedia: Bar Jack Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Bar Jack Macaulay Library: Bar Jack FishBase.org: Bar Jack Species Summary
Literature:
Fish, M.P. and Mowbray, H.M. 1970. Sounds of Western North Atlantic Fishes. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press. p. 62Hoese, H.D. and Moore, R.H. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Texas, Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas 77843
Bar Jack

Black Drum

Black Drum: Photo by Peter Wilson

Black Drum: Photo by Peter Wilson

Source: James Locascio and David Mann, University of S. Florida College of Marine Science

“Drum” is a broad colloquial name used in many English speaking areas to name various fish under the Sciaenidae family that make “drumming” sounds. The Black Drum makes these sounds by way of pharyngeal teeth. These fish can get quite large – 100 kg (45 lbs) and their low frequency “drumming” can transmit a lot of energy over long distances. Southwest Florida residents living along canals frequently hear black drum calls in their homes during the spawning season. This is possible because the low frequencies of these calls are able to travel through the ground and into the walls and floors of their homes. This became a significant problem in one housing development that featured protected waterfront access to every home. This channelized environment made prime habitat for drums (which are protected) and excluding habitat to their predators – mostly sharks. As a consequence members of the neighborhood association have become deeply intimate with the life cycles and natural history of the Pogonias cromis.
Latin Name:
Pogonias cromis
AKA:
Texas Drum, Sea Drum, Saltwater Drum, Gray Drum, Drumfish, Striped Drum, Tambor - Juveniles under 1 lb called “Butterfly drum” Fish over 30lbs called “Bull Drum”
Length:
390cm (16”) at 3 years, up to 1m (40”)
Weight:
avg 30-40 lbs, (13.5 – 18kg) Record weight 146 lbs. (66kg)
Lifetime:
up to 60 years
Physical Traits:
coloration can vary based on location but the young have bars down their sides which disappear with age
Behavior:
produces croaking or drumming sounds with the air bladder, they dig for food with their head down and their tail straight up creating small craters called "drum noodles", mostly they stay local unless food is scarce, then they can migrate a long way (mostly within 10 miles but can be up to 245 miles within a year)
Habitat:
sand flats, flooding sloughs, shallow water to 100 ft deep, freshwater runoff to waters 2x salty as gulf, can survive extremes in temperature from hot shallow water in summer to freezing weather
Locations:
gulf of mexico
Food:
eat worms, shrimp, fish, algae, crabs, and mollusks depending on their age
Predators:
Juvenile black drum are preyed upon by a variety of larger fishes such as seatrout and jacks. Larger black drum are preyed upon by sharks and humans.
Links:
Wikipedia: Black Drum Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Black Drum Macaulay Library: Banded Drum FishBase.org: Black Drum Species Summary Texas Parks and Wildlife: Black Drum
Literature:
Fish, M.P. and Mowbray, H.M. 1970. Sounds of Western North Atlantic Fishes. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press. pg. 108-109.Hoese, H.D. and Moore, R.H. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Texas, Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas 77843 Mok, H.K. and Gilmore, R.G. 1983. Analysis of sound production in estuarine fish aggregations of Pogonias cromis, Bairdiella chrysoura, and Cynoscion nebulosus (Sciaenidae). Bulletin of the Zoological Institute of Academia Sinica 22: 157-186.
Black Drum

Perch

1319236923sea_perch

Sea Perch

Source: James Locascio and David Mann, University of S. Florida College of Marine Science

What could be more “perciforme” than an actual perch? Perch are shoaling animals and can be found in large aggregations. It is hard to determine if these chorusing perch are synchronizing their pulses, or interleaving them. The knocking characteristic indicates that sound production is probably by way of their swim bladders. What they are conveying through the sound behavior is a bit of a mystery, but one incentive for chorusing is for the shoal to understand its extents. If a predator encroaches on the perimeter of the group their presence would cause changes in the chorusing behavior of the animals near the predator – alerting the others of the encroachment. Another incentive might be group cohesion – akin to why humans sing songs together. Fish chorusing of this nature occurs often at dusk and dawn – a behavior that is also found in chorusing terrestrial animals like crickets and birds.
Latin Names:
Perca sp., Macquaria ambigua, Leiopotherapon unicolor
AKA:
Many species with lots of names.
Length:
from 2 cm to 2m (Nile Perch)
Weight:
from a few grams to 200kg
Lifetime:
Years to decades
Physical Traits:
long rounded stature, rough scales, two dorsal fins - the first spiny and the second soft
Behavior:
Freshwater perch are carnivores that are most commonly found in small ponds, lakes, streams, or rivers. These fish feed on smaller fish, shellfish, or insect larvae, but can be caught with nearly any bait. They commonly spawn during the spring, when the females lay strings of eggs in covered areas such as near branches or underwater plants. During the spawning season nocturnal choruses of silver perch can be heard beginning near dusk and lasting several hours into the night. One of the largest – the Nile perch grows to 2m was introduced to Lake Victoria to develop a fishing industry. The fish has displaced and devoured many of the species of cichlids that the lake was known for.
Habitat:
Both fresh and salt water species exist. Shallow waters, marine perch near coasts.
Locations:
Worldwide, temperate waters
Food:
smaller fish, shellfish, or insect larvae
Predators:
Larger fish, carnivorous mammals, humans
Links:
Wikipedia: Perch Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Silver Perch FishBase.org
Literature:
Measurement of an individual silver perch Bairdiella chrysoura sound pressure level in a field recording Mark W. Sprague and Joseph J. Luczkovich J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3186 (2004)
Perch

Minke Whale

Minke Whale

Minke Whale: Photo by {a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/fugm10/4189179573/sizes/l/in/photostream/" target="_blank"}fugm10{/a} on Flickr.

Source: Jason Gedamke

Source: Cornell Ornithology Lab

Common minke whale "boing" vocalizations recorded by a towed array in the North Pacific Ocean. Sound courtesy of Jay Barlow and Shannon Rankin, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service (http://swfsc.noaa.gov).

At 7 – 10 meters ( 23- 33 feet) Minke whales are the smallest of the Mysticetes or “baleen whales.” As such they are also the smallest of the Rorquals – which include (from ‘small’ to large) the Bryde’s, Sei, Fin, and Blue whale (the largest of any vertebrates to live on the planet). Rorqual vocalizations are mostly comprised of very low frequency, long wavelength repetitive pulses or “groans” below human frequency discrimination and longer than our typical time frame, so samples are usually “sped up” to 10 times speed so we can hear them and recognize patterns. Much of study of the rorqual family looks at the individual animal, but the subspecies have regional-specific behavioral distinctions, suggesting aggregate or community adaptive behaviors. One regional vocalization of the Minke from the Great Barrier Reef area is the “star wars” call . Another, called the “boing” was only recently associated with the North Atlantic Minkes. The chorusing sample provided here is from the West Indies; played back 10x speed the sound remarkably like crickets.
Latin Name:
Balaenoptera: B. acutorostrata B. bonaerensis
AKA:
Common minke whale or northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) Antarctic minke whale or southern minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) B. acutorostrata are B. davidsoni (Cope 1872), B. minimia (Rapp, 1837) and B. rostrata (Fabricius, 1780) B. bonaerensis are B. huttoni (Gray 1874).
Length:
males measure an average of 6.9 m (23 ft) and females 7.4 m (24 ft)
Weight:
4–5 t (3.9–4.9 long tons; 4.4–5.5 short tons)
Lifetime:
It is estimated that minke whales become sexually mature at 8 years for males, and 7-8 years for females.
Physical Traits:
black or dark grey back and white belly, sharp angular nose
Behavior:
stay underwater up to 20 minutes, does deep dives
Habitat:
open sea
Locations:
all around the world
Food:
In the northern hemisphere, minke whales appear to be feeding primarily on small schooling fish such as herring, capelin, sandlance, and pilchard. They may also feed on krill and other zooplankton, which is the staple food for southern hemisphere minkes.
Predators:
The main predators of the minke whale are the transient killer whales, sharks and humans – mostly Japanese whalers.
Links:
Wikipedia: Minke Whale Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Minke Whale Arkive.org: Common Minke Whale Arkive.org: Antarctic Minke Whale
Literature:
--
Minke Whale

Bearded Seal

Bearded Seal

Bearded Seal

Male bearded seals are found in the Arctic and have a complex vocal repertoire which they bring out during breeding season during the Arctic Spring (March through July). They also have very pronounced and thick vibrissae, or “whiskers” indicating that they also have a deep physiological investment in perceiving particle motion in their habitat (a characteristic of acoustical energy in water).
Latin Name:
Erignathus barbatus: Erignathus barbatus barbatus, Erignathus barbatus nautica
AKA:
Square flipper seal
Length:
2.1 m (6.9 ft) to 2.7 m (8.9 ft)
Weight:
200 kg (441 lb) to 430 kg (948 lb)
Lifetime:
Females reach sexual maturity at 3-8 years, males at 6-7 years. Few bearded seals live longer than 25 years.
Physical Traits:
gets it's name from it's heavy jaw, thick bristles and whiskers on it's muzzle
Behavior:
Except for breeding season, these seals tend to be solitary in nature, but they can also been seen hauled out on pack ice in small groups. Male bearded seals are among the most vocal of marine animals. They produce distinctive, stereotyped calls that can be heard for up to 12 miles. The vocalizations are only heard during the breeding season which lasts for about 90 days, from about late March through mid July.
Habitat:
shallow coastal areas
Locations:
Arctic Ocean
Food:
clams, squid, fish
Predators:
polar bears
Links:
Wikipedia: Bearded Seal Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Bearded Seal
Literature:
Acoustic techniques provide insights into reproductive strategies of bearded seals, Erignathus barbatus Sofie M. Van Parijs and Chris W. Clark J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 2555 (2004)Haunted Arctic Harold M. Merklinger and H. Scott Morash J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58, S122 (1975)
Bearded Seal

Weddell Seal

Weddel Seal

Weddel Seal: Photo by {a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/robnunn/2269544546/sizes/l/in/photostream/" target="_blank"}robnunn{/a} on Flickr.

Source: Australian Antarctic Division, Commonwealth of Australia

Found in the Antarctic, the Weddell seal’s complex descending sweeps and chirping calls are produced by the males during breeding season, evidence that this vocalization probably has something to do with courtship, advertizing breeding fitness, and/or territorial announcements. Signals are complex in frequency, amplitude, and time domain. Not enough is known about these animals to understand what accounts for the complexity.
Latin Name:
Leptonychotes weddellii
AKA:
--
Length:
2.5-3.5 m (8.2-11.5 ft) long
Weight:
500 kg (1100 lbs) or less
Lifetime:
about 20 years
Physical Traits:
their coat is mottled with large darker and lighter patches, upturned 'smiling' mouths,
Behavior:
deep dives, which may reach some 700 m (2,300 ft), avoids blizzards by staying underwater and breathing through holes in the ice, they are very docile and placid animals and can be approached easily, noises that are loud enough to be felt through the ice, can stay underwater for approximately 80 minutes
Habitat:
on, under and around the Antarctic sea ice
Locations:
Antarctic
Food:
fish, krill, squid, bottom-feeding prawns, cephalopods, crustaceans and sometimes penguins
Predators:
Weddell seals have no natural predators when on fast ice. At sea or on pack ice, they become prey for killer whales and leopard seals, which prey primarily on juveniles and pups.
Links:
Wikipedia: Weddell Seal Discovery of Sound in the Sea: Weddell Seal
Literature:
Diel patterns in underwater sounds by Weddell seals during two breeding seasons Charisse Coulombe and Jeanette Thomas J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1939 (2005)Diel and seasonal patterns of underwater sounds by Weddell seals, leopard seals, and killer whales in the Antarctic: When it's adaptive to be quiet Debrah Mindach and Jeanette Thomas J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1938 (2005)Stereotyped calling patterns of a male Weddell seal Jack M. Terhune and Andrea Dell'Apa J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1938 (2005)
Weddell Seal
© Copyright Ocean Conservation Research - Theme by Pexeto
Visit Us On TwitterVisit Us On FacebookVisit Us On Google PlusVisit Us On YoutubeCheck Our Feed